AIM To explore the correlation between anti-inflammatory diet and different types of heart failure (HF). MEHTODS From October 2021 to September 2022, 278 hospitalized patients in the Department of Cardiology of the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University were divided into HF group (n=204) and non HF group (n=74) based on whether they had HF. Patients in the HF group were divided into ejection fraction retention heart failure (HFpEF) group (n=77), ejection fraction reduction heart failure (HFrEF) group (n=70), and ejection fraction median heart failure (HFmrEF) group (n=57) based on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The general clinical data, biochemical indicators, and nutritional risk scores of patients were collected through the electronic medical record system (NRS-2002). The validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect dietary information of patients before admission, and the anti-inflammatory dietary score was calculated based on the “Scientific Research Report on Chinese Dietary Guidelines (2021)”. Left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDd), and LVEF were measured by echocardiography.
RESULTS The anti-inflammatory dietary scores of patients with heart failure and its subtypes in the HFrEF group, HFmrEF group, and HFpEF group were lower than those in the non HF group (all P<0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the HFrEF group, HFmrEF group, and HFpEF group. The data of digoxin and myeloperoxidase in the HF group were higher than those in the non HF group (all P<0.05), and the CCB was lower than those in the non HF group (P<0.05). Spironolactone, diuretics, RDW, NLR, ST2, BNP, K, LAD, LVEDd, and NRS-2002 were higher than those in the non HF group (all P<0.01). BMI, hypertension, college education or above, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, LVEF, and plasma albumin were lower than those in the non HF group (all P<0.01). Spearman correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between anti-inflammatory dietary scores and the occurrence of HF (P<0.01). After adjustment for BMI, medication, hypertension, education, RDW, NLR, ST2, BNP, K, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, LAD, LVEDd, LVEF, plasma albumin, and NRS-2002, this correlation still exists. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the low level anti-inflammatory diet score was the influencing factor for HF (P<0.05). The analysis results of the subject work characteristic curve (ROC) drawn showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of the anti-inflammatory diet score predicting the occurrence of HF was 0.773 (95% CI: 0.707～0.839, P<0.01), the optimal threshold was 8.5 points, and the sensitivity and specificity were 72.5% and 73.0%, respectively.
CONCLUSION Low level anti-inflammatory diet score is one of the risk factors for HF, which can be used for healthy diet management.