Weightlessness can lead to cardiovascular dysfunction, manifested as orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity. Under the influence of a cephalad shift in fluid distribution from the lower part of the body towards the upper body due to the weightless environment, the redistribution of transmural pressure along the arterial vessels can promote vascular remodeling. Arterial vascular ion channels are key factors in the regulation of arterial vasoconstriction or vasodilation. Weightlessness and simulated weightlessness have an effect on the function and expression of arterial voltage-dependent calcium channels, large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, voltage-dependent potassium channels and calcium-releasing channels, and this effect is characterized differently in different parts of the artery. In this paper, we review the research progress of arterial vascular ion channels in weightlessness-induced cardiovascular dysfunction to provide theoretical references for further research on aerospace medical countermeasures.